*(tl;dr: wonky post on statistical modeling)*

I fit linear mixed effects models (LMMs) for most of the experimental data I collect. My data are typically repeated observations nested within subjects, and often have crossed effects of items as well; this means I need to account for this nesting and crossing structure when estimating the effects of various experimental manipulations. For the last ten years or so, I've been fitting these models in lme4 in R, a popular package that allows quick specification of complex models.

One question that comes up frequently regarding these models is what random effect structure to include? I typically follow the advice of Barr et al. (2013), who recommend "maximal" models – models that nest all the fixed effects within a random factor that have repeated observations for that random grouping factor. So for example, if you have observations for both conditions for each subject, fit random condition effects by subject. This approach contrasts, however, with the "parsimonious" approach of Bates et al.,* who argue that such models can be over-parameterized relative to variability in the data. The issue of choosing an approach is further complicated by the fact that, in practice, lme4 can almost never fit a completely maximal model and instead returns convergence warnings. So then you have to make a bunch of (perhaps ad-hoc) decisions about what to prune or how to tweak the optimizer.

Last year, responding to this discussion, I posted a blogpost that became surprisingly popular, arguing for the adoption of Bayesian mixed effects models. My rationale was not mainly that Bayesian models are interpretively superior – which they are, IMO – but just that they allow us to fit the random effect structure that we want without doing all that pruning business. Since then, we've published a few papers (e.g. this one) using Bayesian LMMs (mostly without anyone even noticing or commenting).**

In the mean time, I was working on the ManyBabies project. We finally completed data collection on our first study, a 60+ lab consortium study of babies' preference for infant-directed speech! This is exciting and big news, and I will post more about it shortly. But in the course of data analysis, we had to grapple with this same set of LMM issues. In our pre-registration (which, for what it's worth, was written before I really had tried the Bayesian methods), we said we would try to fit a maximal LMM with the following structure. It doesn't really matter what all the predictors are, but trial_type is the key experimental manipulation:

**M1)**log_lt ~ trial_type * method +

trial_type * trial_num +

age_mo * trial_num +

trial_type * age_mo * nae +

(trial_type * trial_num | subid) +

(trial_type * age_mo | lab) +

(method * age_mo * nae | item)

Of course, we knew this model would probably not converge. So we preregistered a pruning procedure, which we followed during data analysis, leaving us with:

**M2)**log_lt ~ trial_type * method +

trial_type * trial_num +

age_mo * trial_num +

trial_type * age_mo * nae +

(trial_type | subid) +

(trial_type | lab) +

(1 | item)

We fit that model and report it in the (under review) paper, and we interpret the

*p*-values as real

*p*-values (well, as real as

*p*-values can be anyway), because we are doing exactly the confirmatory thing we said we'd do. But in the back of my mind, I was wondering if we shouldn't have fit the whole thing with Bayesian inference and gotten the random effect structure that we hoped for.***

So I did that. Using the amazing brms package, all you need to do is replace "lmer" with "brm" (to get a default prior model with default inference).**** Fitting the full LMM on my MacBook Pro takes about 4hrs/chain with completely default parameters, so 16 hrs total – though if you do it in parallel you can fit all four at once. I fit M1 (the maximal model, called "bayes"), M2 (the pruned model, "bayes_pruned"), and for comparison the frequentist (also pruned, called "freq") model. Then I plotted coefficients and CIs against one another for comparison. There are three plots, corresponding to the three pairwise comparisons (brms M1 vs. lme4 M2, brms M1 vs. brms M2, and brms M2 vs. lme4 M2). (So as not to muddy the interpretive waters for ManyBabies, I'm just showing the coefficients without labels here). Here are the results.

*and*the frequentist M2. In other words, the fitting method didn't matter with this big dataset – but the random effects structure did! Further, if you dig into the confidence intervals, they are again similar between fitting methods but different between random effects structures. Here's a pairs plot of the correlation between upper CI limits (note that .00 here means a correlation of 1.00!):

Not huge differences, but they track with random effect structure again, not with the fitting method.

In sum, in one important practical case, we see that fitting the maximal model structure (rather than the maximal

*convergent*model structure) seems to make a difference to model fit and interpretation. This evidence to me supports the Bayesian approach that I recommended in my prior post. I don't know that M1 is the

*best*model – I'm trusting the "keep it maximal" recommendation on that point. But to the extent that I should be able to fit all the models I want to try, then using brms (even if it's slower) seems important. So I'm going to keep using this fitting procedure in the immediate future.

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* This approach seems very promising, but also a bit tricky to implement. I have to admit, I am a bit lazy and it is really helpful when software provides a solution for fitting that I can share with people in my lab as standard practice. A collaborator and I tried someone else's implementation of parsimonious models and it completely failed, and then we gave up. If someone wants to try it on this dataset I'd be happy to share!

* An aside: after I posted, Doug Bates kindly engaged and encouraged me to adopt Julia, rather than R, for model fitting, if it was fitting that I wanted and not Bayesian inference. We did experiment a bit with this, and Mika Braginsky wrote the jglmm package to use Julia for fitting. This experiment resulted in her in-press paper using Julia for model fits, but also with us recognizing that 1) Julia is TONS faster than R for big mixed models, which is a win, but 2) Julia can't fit some of the baroque random effects structures that we occasionally use, and 3) installing Julia and getting everything working is very non-trivial, meaning that it's hard to recommend for folks just getting started.

** Jake Westfall, back in 2016 when we were planning the study, said we should do this, and I basically told him that I thought that developmental psychologists wouldn't agree to it. But I think he was probably right.

*** Code for this post is on github.